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Monday, August 29

  1. page Syria edited 1.1 Socio economic background Syria nowadays is only a small part of its ancient territory. Pla…

    1.1 Socio economic background
    Syria nowadays is only a small part of its ancient territory. Placed between the desert[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_1|[G1]]] and the Mediterranean Sea, this country was called Syria by Greeks because ancient ‘Greater Syria’ connected three continents. Syria peculiar position in the Middle East, crossed by the Tigris and Euphrates rivers, made it a fertile and cereal growing oasis, where ancient civilization has flowered in the first days of humankind history. Geography has facilitated cultural development but it has also made Syria a vulnerable land, causing the raise and the fallen of empires and is civilizations[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn1|[1]]]. Today the country that correspond to the name of Syria has an extension of 185,180 km2 , composed by desert and arid plateau, with a narrow coastal plain and mountain in the western part. Syria’s[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn2|[2]]] climate is mostly desert with dry summer and mild and rainy winters. Evidently the landscape has changed during the time causing changes that affected population needs especially regarding fresh water resources. Geographical and socio-cultural issues are deeply connected in this region and its history along the centuries, so as understanding Syria’s history as well as political role and economical situation is crucial to achieve the team project goal.
    The South Eastern Anatolia Project (GAP) original project during the 70ties consisted on irrigation and hydroelectric energy production on the Tigris and Euphrates[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn3|[3]]]. Along the 80ies Turkey has rethink the whole program as a development project based on the concept of sustainable development[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn4|[4]]], to eliminate regional development disparities by raising people's income level and living standards; and to contribute to such national development targets as social stability and economic growth by enhancing the productive and employment generating capacity of the rural sector[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn5|[5]]]. The linkage between economy and security is evident if we went to trough the history of the Turkish-Syrian relations on the exploitation of the Euphrates and Tigris water basin. In order to find adequate answer(s) to the multiple issues that this region is facing, we should define what is the meaning of economical and security problems. In this chapter they may represent the same concerns which are well expressed in the concept of Human Security[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn6|[6]]]:
    This concept[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn7|[7]]] elaborated by the United Nations helps to better understand the complexity of the Tigris-Euphrates problem because in one word it includes:
    Economic security issues: economic instability may cause ethical and political tensions.
    Food security issues: the lack of food allocation and the limited purchasing power are the causes of the wild dam building activity take in place by turkey and Syria.
    Health security issues: fresh and clean water scarcity is one of the causes of threats to health for poor people in rural areas, particularly children in industrial and developing countries
    Environmental security issues:lack of access to clean water resources is one of the greatest environmental threats.
    Personal security issues
    Political security issues:
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_2|[G2]]] From a socio economic point of view the availability of natural resources is the most important element to develop a community. The Tigris and Euphrates rivers have a primary role in the regional economy. . Rivers fresh water availability is affected by two mayor elements identified as manmade intervention and climate change. Climate change is an important issue that the international community is addressing at multiple high level meetings, but is not a variable that we are addressing in this report since it requires more time and more efforts to first understand its interaction with the water cycle and to second have an effective action to influence and reverse this environmental phenomenon. Manmade interventions are easier to identify and address, as well as a short term effect on the environmental and sociopolitical dynamic within the region.
    Syria main national concern was to achieve national economic development, by augmenting families’ income and improving life quality. Water management project have been financed on by oil enriched countries in the region since they were the only one that could afford the costs of such program. Moreover the costs of the maintenance and the implementation of such program must be taken in consideration. In that region the consumers are not able to meet the real costs of the water services: in Syria a fee is imposed to recover some of the investments made. This fee has been calculated by taking in to account the development costs for an amortization period of 30 years without interest and inflation charge. This payment system is regulated by a decree and a executive decision issued to recover the cost of the irrigation project , operation and maintenance. According to the decision no. 5 of 21st November 1999 and issued by the Syrian Prime Minister, operation and maintenance costs for irrigation and drainage networks are charged with a flat fee. Obviously pump irrigation is more expensive than gravity irrigation but the percentage of payment is pretty high compared with the rest of the world standards. The need for infrastructure and resources doesn’t help the country to achieve its economic prosperity. During the sixties Syrian Government adopted a socialist economic approach, in which were included the land reform and the nationalization plan, benefitting from the foreign investment. at the beginning the central role of the state brought to an higher economic growth that lasts along the next decade. Massive expenditures for development program such as irrigation, electricity, water resulted from the relatively economic prosperity, expanding health services and projects, however the economy remained dependent from the foreign aid and grant to finance.
    Syrian vulnerability is also due its geographical position. Middle East politics and conflicts have strongly affected the country. Overall the Kurds[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn8|[8]]] question has strongly influenced[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn9|[9]]] the water politics between turkey and Syria as confirmed by the 1998 treaty on terrorism between this two neighbor countries[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn10|[10]]]. Although the government has started some reform process to face the crisis, according to the Mediterranean Environmental Technical assistance Program of the World Bank, today Syria is consuming 2.761 m3 per year (for a population of 16.2 million) allocating 88 % for agriculture and irrigation and only 7% for domestic use[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn11|[11]]] as well as 2.5% for industry. The WB report asses also that the excessive exploitation of the water basin has decreased the water level by 15 to20 meters. Scarcity of water and its high pollution added to regional instability obstacolate the peace process in the middle east region. Times are mature to consider water as an economic resource[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn12|[12]]] using an appropriate water management administrated by a credible international organization. A bottom up approach shall be taken in consideration in order to solve regional conflicts through an effective resource sharing. In addiction to that other local provision can be taken in consideration:
    1. Major democratization
    a.domestic stability
    b.human right uphold
    c.transparency measures
    e. eradication of corruption.
    More and new deal between population and government
    More participation off the population in water issues
    a. become active partners in managing development activities
    b. protect democracy
    c. pay their taxes
    d. uphold law and regulations
    1.2 Agriculture
    Due to its ancient and prestigious role played in the humankind history the Tigris and Euphrates river basin is one of the oldest and most irrigated areas of the Middle East. In this area salinization due to irrigationis becoming an issue even if some salinity problems werelareadyknown in 2400 BC pushing the farmes to turn from wheat to barley more tolerant to salted water. Today inadequate drainage systems cause the slow accumulation of salt provoking declined productivity which has a negative influence on the country wellbeing and stability. The Syrian economy is based on agriculture which represent the 20% of the GDP. And 1.69 million of the country 6.55 million of inhabitants is economically active in agriculture. Those data confirms the crucial role played in the Syrian economic activities and their growth depends highly by its productivity and efficiency. Moreover agriculture is strictly related to food security[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_3|[G3]]] [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_4|[G4]]] .
    Syrian Agriculture policy aimed to self sufficiency but it is encouraging that they can also have some surplus in their production. The irrigated area are the 87% of the agricultural areas but unfortunately its efficiency is below 60%, in addition to the ridges building cause a loss of productive land more of less from 5 % and 10 %, even if the irrigated fields produce more than the rain fed ones. An agreement with neighbor countries is necessary to improve the country irrigation system. Costs are another aspect that Syria have to take in consideration. Irrigation costs has increased considerably from the 70ies shifting the attention on drainage and irrigation rehabilitation systems, mainly in the Euphrates valley where first irrigation systems are from the fifties. The Directorate of Irrigation and Water Use (DIWU) is in charge of on farm irrigation. This Directorate is part of the Ministry of Agriculture and (MAAR), and its main activities consist in research, testing, piloting managing programs on agriculture although the farmers has a form of responsibilities on local level. MAAR has 13 research station and irrigation implant in order to research and disseminate data and information. This Ministry promotes and support farmers with technical advices to address pressing water issues. we can not forget that an agreement with neighbor countries is necessary to improve its irrigation productivity. [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn13|[13]]] [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn14|[14]]] [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn15|[15]]][[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn16|[16]]][[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn17|[17]]][[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn18|[18]]]
    Costs are a relevant factor in Syrian water management. Only part of the costs water distribution network and those for operation and maintenance ( US $ 70 / ha) are covered by Syrian water tariffs, excluding water conservation systems. Until now international observer haven’t noticed a strong water policy and they also reposrted that there is no legal regulation for invoicing the price of irrigation with a volume related pricing system. Syria define water as a public good even though this natural resource is not treated as a market good.
    The country has established a licence system to regulate the basin exploitation. The Ministry of (MOI) has fixed fees for licenses illegal use or for those who exploit the river basin without license. The government banned new wells but it didn’t enforce this regulations causing a weak regulation which doesn’t help the country water management. At the same time Syrian decision makers didn’t set any water priority in any government plan or document nor regulation or law, although Ministries agreed on water essential role in the country future development and survival. Prohibition on well digging and ground water pollution have been approved even if it si not clear how they will be enforced. Uncertain investments on water development project and lack of alternative water strategies creates doubt around the future country financial sustainability.
    Since 2000 Syria has made some attempt to readdress water issues but they were superficial and didn’t bring any fundamental change to its monumental centralized structure which demonstrate the government weak and fragmented capacity in facing water problems. Agrarian reforms and ministries seems incoherent and chaotic.
    In order to obtain an effective water management Syria may take in consideration some few aspects:
    a. Reform of pricing and subsides
    b. Management transfer
    c. Organizational restructure
    d. Decentralized decision making
    e. More involvement of private stake holder
    f. More involvement of private sector in agriculture
    g. Greater involvement of user
    h. High quality central activities
    i. Clear objectives for sustainable water related development prjects
    j. Effective enforcement with support activities.
    1.3 Industry
    The Syrian government started a nationalization program in 1965 causing a slower industrial growth, non implementing the first five years plan and creating a nucleus of public industrial sector[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn19|[19]]].. During the following decade the government aimed at creating a self efficiency economy which didn’t stimulate the economic growth in the country. Syrian public sector industry has been considerate inefficient due to the underused capacity and higher costs. Since the mid eighties the Baath regional congress started a reform aimed at upgrading administrative capabilities and revitalizing the industrial sector by eliminating the industrial mismanagement. After the expansion of the country industrial activities the seventies liberalization reforms of the Assad Government increased the private and foreigner investments on the Syrian industries that in addition to the boom of the oil industries caused the expansion of this sector. The ever growing demand of energy of Syrian Arab Republic brought to the installation of 8.200 Megawatts which unfortunately operated at less than half of its capacity due to a fall on water levels on the Euphrates thanks to the climate change and the Turkish water policy. Damascus growing population and the rising of the private sector are pressing to obtain more electricity
    Three main hydroelectric plants are situated on the Euphrates which provides only the 9% of the country electricity. The 90% of the electric power is produced by the 880-megawatt al-Thawra Dam and the 630-megawatt Tishreen Dam. The overuse[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn20|[20]]] and the pollution of the water resources result once again from the inadequate treatment of this precious natural resources. A proposed solution for the national needs has been represented by new technology in alternative to a diplomatic solution which at the moment seems improbable due to the political internal problem and Syrian diplomatic isolation. The proposal come out from Professor Dr. Ahmet Mete Saatci, vice secretary-general of the fifth World Water Forum[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn21|[21]]] and a distinguished civil engineer, chair and professor of environmental engineering at Turkey's Marmara University since 1991 suggest to finance such new technology project with the new foreign investments in the country[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn22|[22]]]. Steven L. Stockton, Director Civil Works, USACE and World Water Council Governor, stated that “Sustainable water resources management strategies are an essential element of National Security.” [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn23|[23]]]//
    1.4 Health[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_5|[G5]]]
    Population growth pressure in the area of the Tigris Euphrates water basin have caused the expansion of the industrial activities as well as the agricultural one. Human activities represent one of the major threat to water quality which is one of the basic element of the survival of on earth ecosystems.
    Climate change affect the water cycle together with manmade intervention on environment causes water quality loss in addition to water quantity one. Degradated ecosystems by polluted water has negative direct effects on fisheries, biodiversity, agriculture threatening good quality food. The most affected people in Syria by this specific problem are those who live near contamined waterways and those who do not have access to alternative safe water and to improved sanitation.
    Monitoring activities[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn24|[24]]] conducted in Syrian Arab Republic have demonstrated that industrial activities[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn25|[25]]] together with municipal are one of the major cases of pollution in the water basin. Scarce water quality effects due to water pollution cause health disease that have been identified by the Food and Agriculture Organization[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn26|[26]]] as following:
    1. Scarcity of ground water resources and orientation toward the use of waste water to meet shortage
    2. Lack of infrastructure, and in particular those related waste water treatment and disposal
    3. Lack of health awareness and proper handling of polluted water
    4. Absence or lack of adoptions of regulations related to protection of the environment and public health
    The World Bank Mediterranean Environmental Technical Assistance Program (METAP) has extimated that the environmental pollution costs consist in 4.1% of the national GDP (US $ 600 million/ year) in addiction to illness cost which are the 0.7%[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn27|[27]]] and the water resource degradation and inadequate potable water sanitation and hygiene which have been estimated around 1.0%.
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    The legal framework for water quality management at the present consist in the old French water law decree no. 2145 (1971) and law no. 17 (1982) that regulate water exploitation as well as water quality monitoring.
    According to the METAP new water and environmental law are pending. Those reforms intended to protect public water from pollution and identify sanctions for violations, which include failures in protecting water quality and using untreated waste water for irrigation.
    Local institutions which deal with water quality issues are the Ministry of Irrigation that einforce compliance with waste water discharge regulations for drinking water and establishing municipal water purification plants and water distribution networks.
    Unfortunately the instable political and economical situation in the country, Ministries lacked of funds, even though Syria benefits of the intervention of many international organizations, for instance the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund and external aid, mainly from Arab countries.[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn28|[28]]]. thanks to those contributions Syria’ s achievements can be resumed as:
    1. Treated wasted water project : supported by the UNDP, it asses the long term impacts of threatened effects on soil fertility, crop productivity, health and environment. This project include a training program about sewage and agricultural drainage for formers and governmental officials.
    2. Waste water strategic planning study: this study, financed by the World Bank, has been conducted around the Damascus area in order to prepare a plan for the provision of waste water management services.
    3. Feasibility of fresh water transportation: those studies have being conducted in Damascus.
    Water sanitation and drinking water needs investments to maintain or renew assets and programs. It is important to highlight that they are necessary in term of returns consisting in human lives saved, avoided costs, reduction of health related diseases and health care expenses, more health workdays, increased productivity.
    The international community is aware of the above described concerns, not only at regional level, but also at global level.
    The former United Nation Secretary General Kofi Annan affirmed “access to safe water is a fundamental human need and therefore a basic human right”. Recently, the United Nations Human Rights Council approved on the 30th September 2010 trough Res. A/HRC/IS/L.14. The Resolution affirm that safe drinking water and sanitation are derived from the right to an adequate standard of physical and mental health as well as to life and human dignity, considering this right contained in existing human right treaties and therefore and therefore legally binding implying their justiaciablity enforceability[[file:///D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn29|[29]]]. This resolution represent only the last step of a long and difficult walk toward the recognition of the access to clean and fresh water as a human right. During the 29th session of the UN Committee on Economic Social and Cultural Rights, in November 2002 the General Comment no. 15 which has been the legal framework and background to the recognition of the right to water as a human right affirming that “the human right to water utilities everyone to sufficient, safe, acceptable, physically accessible and affordable water for personal and domestic uses”, concluding that the human right to water is indispensable for human dignity. According to the General Comment no. 15 availability, quantity, quality, and accessibility are the individual element of the right.:
    a. Respect the right to water by refraining from interfering directly or indirectly with the enjoinment of the right
    b. Protect the right to water by preventing third parties from interfering in any way with the enjoyment of the right to water
    c. Fulfill the right to water by adopting the necessary measures directed towards the full realization of this right
    the enjoyment of this right must be without of any discrimination of any sort[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn30|[30]]].
    The Millennium Development Goals[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn31|[31]]] represent another international framework where the right to water has been confirmed, committing participating countries to halving the proportion of people without sustainable access to safe water and basic sanitation by 2015 as a key element to eliminate poverty and improving the levels of billion of people worldwide. Within the UN three initiatives has been created to achieve those goals:
    1. National reporting: to monitor progress towards goals achievement
    2. Millennium project: to draws together decision makers and experts to research how progress can be accelerated
    3. Millennium development campaign: to obtain global support and spread awareness
    International water conferences[[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn32|[32]]][[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msocom_6|[G6]]]
    [[file:///D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftn33|[33]]]
    1.5 Water management
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref1|[1]]] Global security, magazineon line,
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref2|[2]]]Cia world factbook web site
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref3|[3]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref4|[4]]] Sustainable development is a broad concept which has started to its elaboration since the 1972 Meadows report “a limit to growth”, and has seen its institutionalization during the 1992 United Nation Conference on Environment and Development, UNCED Earth Summit in Rio de Janeiro, which adopt the Agenda 21 as well the Rio Principles. In December 1992 the United Nations established the Commission on Sustainable Development (CSD) which during its 11th session adopted a multiyear program starting from 2004 to 2017. In this program water issues play a central role.(
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref5|[5]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref6|[6]]] This concept has been firstly introduced in the United Nation Development Report in 1994 but it was present since the seventies in the Brandt ([6] Report and the Burthland ( report.,,
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref7|[7]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref8|[8]]]The United Nation High Commission for Refugees, web site,,MARP,,,469f3ad71e,0.html
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref9|[9]]]Syria supported the Kurdish PKK as a form of protest against Ankara GAP project and claims over the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref10|[10]]] Web site on International fresh water treaties databas about Syria, [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/treaty/Transboundary Freshwater Dispute Database treaties.htm|file:/D:/Links/Desktop/treaty/Transboundary%20Freshwater%20Dispute%20Database%20treaties.htm]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref11|[11]]]Report of Ms Intisar Mardini, Director, Environmental Protection Department, Ministry of Housing and Utilities, International Monetary Fund web site,
    Damascus, Syrian Arab Republic
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref12|[12]]]Franklin M. Fisher, and osseimi Askari, Optimal Water Management in the Middle East and Other Regions
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref13|[13]]] World Bank web site, Country Profile
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref14|[14]]] Food and Agriculture Organization,
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref15|[15]]] Food and Agriculture Organization, aquastat, website
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref16|[16]]] World Bank METAP Syria Web site
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref17|[17]]] Country studies US web site
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref18|[18]]][[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria - ECONOMY.htm|file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria%20-%20ECONOMY.htm]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref19|[19]]] Country studies US web site
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref20|[20]]]The National, on line magazine,
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref21|[21]]]World water forum website
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref22|[22]]] Assyrian International News Agency, on line magazine,
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref23|[23]]] A NEW WATER POLITICS, WORLD WATER COUNCIL 2010 - 2012 STRATEGY.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref24|[24]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref25|[25]]]that are only 2.5% of the total utilization of water including ground water as well as surface water
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref26|[26]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref27|[27]]]Caused by no access to safe potable water sanitation and inadeguate domestic, personal and food hygiene.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref28|[28]]]
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref29|[29]]]UN Indipendent Expert on Human Rights Obbligation Related to Access to Safe and Drinking Water and Sanitation, Catarina de Albuquerque.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref30|[30]]]At regional level this right has been recognized by many organizations, the European Union started with the 1950 European convention for protection of human rights and fundamentals freedoms (Art. 2) with the 1961 European Social Charter (Art. 11) which don’t mention explicitly water but it is implied. In the 1969 the American Convention on Human Rights (Art. 4) and its 1988 Additional Protocol in the area of Economic Social and Cultural Rights (Art 10 ). African Countries stipulated the 1981 African Charter on Human and People Rights (Art. 4) followed by the 1990 African Charter on Rights and welfare of the child. In 2001 the European Union has agreed on the European charter on Water resources which in tis Art. 5 confirms that everyone that has right to a sufficient quantity of water for his or her basic needs.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref31|[31]]] In 2000, 189 nations made a promise to free people from extreme poverty and multiple deprivations. This pledge became the eight Millennium Development Goals to be achieved by 2015. In September 2010, the world recommitted itself to accelerate progress towards these goals.
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref32|[32]]] 2009 Fifth World Water Forum, Istanbul, Turkey, 2006 Fourth World Water Forum, Mexico, 2003 Third World Water Forum, Kyoto, Japan, 2002 World Summit on Sustainable Development, Rio + 10, Johannesburg, South Africa, 2001 New Partnerships for African Development, NEPAD framework document, 2001 International Conference on Fresh Water, Bonn, Germany, 2000 The Second World Water Forum, Ministerial Conference on Water Security in the Twenty-First Century, The Hague, Netherlands, 2000 Millennium Summit, New York, USA, 1997 The First World Water Forum, Marrakesh, Morocco, 1995 Fourth World Conference on Women, Beijing, China, 1995 World Summit for Social Development, Copenhagen, Denmark, 1992 International Conference on Water and the Environment, Dublin, Ireland, 1990 World Summit for Children, 1990 The Global Consultation on Safe Water and Sanitation, 1977 United Nations Water Conference, Mar del Plata, Argentina, 1972 The UN Conference on Human Environment, Sweden.(
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_ftnref33|[33]]]Netherlands waste management partnership, Waste management in Syrie
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_1|[G1]]]Which one?
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_2|[G2]]]More academic
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_3|[G3]]]to
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_4|[G4]]] to reference
    [[file:/D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_5|[G5]]]Misse guidelines
    [[file:///D:/Links/Desktop/Syria Policy and Law subgroup.docx#_msoanchor_6|[G6]]]Recover raccomandation
    (view changes)
    1:04 am

Thursday, August 25

  1. page home edited ... To set who can view and edit your wiki, click on Manage Wiki and Permissions. Need Help? ..…
    To set who can view and edit your wiki, click on Manage Wiki and Permissions.
    Need Help?
    your wiki. {Cover1.pdf}
    (view changes)
  2. page home edited ... ISU 2011 - Team Project: Fresh Water {Cover1.jpg} {H2OPE_logo.jpg} {TP-FW-Logo-20110825…
    ISU 2011 - Team Project: Fresh Water
    Welcome to Your New Wiki!
    (view changes)
  3. page home edited {cover_3b.jpg} {coverart.png} {cover_3.jpg} ISU 2011 - Team Project: Fresh Water {cover…


    ISU 2011 - Team Project: Fresh Water
    The title is on the right because the back cover is included (although not designed yet)

    Welcome to Your New Wiki!
    Getting Started
    (view changes)
  4. page Policy edited ... Syria Database on institutions {population_graph.jpg} {GDP graph.pdf} A review of the …
    Database on institutions
    {population_graph.jpg}{GDP graph.pdf}
    A review of the treaties that were mentioned in Ferrazzani's talk
    Here is the page where we see the status of the 1997 UN non-navigable watercourses convention , along with who ratified it and some comments that the countries made.
    (view changes)
    7:32 am
  5. file GDP graph.pdf uploaded
    7:32 am
  6. page Policy edited ... Syria Database on institutions {population graph.pdf} {population_graph.jpg} A review …
    Database on institutions
    {population graph.pdf}{population_graph.jpg}
    A review of the treaties that were mentioned in Ferrazzani's talk
    Here is the page where we see the status of the 1997 UN non-navigable watercourses convention , along with who ratified it and some comments that the countries made.
    (view changes)